- Weedguru Higher
- Posts: 14620
- Joined: Sun Mar 30, 2003 1:31 pm
- Location: Canada
What Is Morphine?
Morphine sulfate occurs as white, feathery, silky crystals, cubical masses of crystals, or white crystalline powder; it is soluble in water and slightly soluble in alcohol. Morphine is significantly more water-soluble than any other opioid in clinical use.
Morphine was first isolated in 1804 by the German pharmacist Friedrich Wilhelm Adam Sertürner, who named it "morphium" after Morpheus, the Greek god of dreams. But it was not until the development of the hypodermic needle (1853) that its use spread. It was used for pain relief, and as a "cure" for opium and alcohol addiction. Its extensive use during the American Civil War resulted in over 400,000 sufferers from the "soldier's disease" (addiction), though some believe this to be erroneous.
Morphine, a narcotic, directly effects the central nervous system. Besides relieving pain, Morphine's effects impair mental and physical performance, relieves fear and anxiety, and produces euphoria. Morphine's effects also decreases hunger, inhibits the cough reflex, produces constipation, and usually reduces the sex drive; in women it may interfere with the menstrual cycle. Morphine's euphoric effects can be highly addictive. Tolerance and physical and psychological dependence develop quickly.
Morphine effects include but are not limited to:
- Relief of pain
- Impairment of mental and physical performance
- Relief of fear and anxiety
- Decease in hunger
- Inhibiting the cough reflex
Another one of morphine's effects is addiction. Tolerance (the need for higher and higher doses to maintain the same effect) and physical and psychological dependence to morphine's effects develop quickly. Withdrawal from morphine causes nausea, tearing, yawning, chills, and sweating lasting up to three days. Morphine crosses the placental barrier, and babies born to morphine-using mothers go through withdrawal.
Morphine activates the brain's reward systems. The promise of reward is very intense, causing the individual to crave the drug and to focus his or her activities around taking morphine. The ability of morphine to strongly activate brain reward mechanisms and its ability to chemically alter the normal functioning of these systems can produce an addiction. Morphine effects also reduce a person's level of consciousness, harming the ability to think or be fully aware of present surroundings.
Morphine is a narcotic analgesic. Morphine was first isolated from opium in 1805 by a German pharmacist, Wilhelm Sertürner. Sertürner described it as the Principium Somniferum. He named it morphium - after Morpheus, the Greek god of dreams. Today morphine is isolated from opium in substantially larger quantities - over 1000 tons per year - although most commercial opium is converted into codeine by methylation. On the illicit market, opium gum is filtered into morphine base and then synthesized into heroin.
Morphine is highly addictive. Tolerance (the need for higher and higher doses to maintain the same effect) and physical and psychological addiction to Morphine develop quickly. Withdrawal from Morphine causes nausea, tearing, yawning, chills, and sweating lasting up to three days. Morphine crosses the placental barrier, and babies born to Morphine-using mothers go through Morphine withdrawal.
Addictive drugs, such as Morphine activate the brain's reward systems. The promise of reward is very intense, causing the individual to crave Morphine and to focus his or her activities around the taking of Morphine. The ability of Morphine to strongly activate brain reward mechanisms and its ability to chemically alter the normal functioning of these systems can produce a Morphine addiction. Morphine also reduces a person's level of consciousness, harming the ability to think or be fully aware of present surroundings.
Morphine was first used medicinally as a painkiller and, erroneously, as a cure for opium addiction. Morphine quickly replaced opium as a cure-all recommended by doctors and as a recreational drug and was readily available from drugstores or through the mail. Substitution of Morphine addiction for alcohol addiction was considered beneficial by some physicians because alcohol is more destructive to the body and is more likely to trigger antisocial behavior. Morphine was used during the American Civil War as a surgical anesthetic and was sent home with many wounded soldiers for relief of pain. At the end of the war, over 400,000 people had the "army disease", Morphine addiction. The Franco-Prussian War in Europe had a similar effect.
Self detoxification from Morphine can be extremely dangerous. Morphine addiction withdrawal can cause physical and emotional trauma including stroke, heart attack, and even death. Methadone is often used to ease the pain from Morphine addiction withdrawal. The outcome from methadone treatment typically ends with the individual acquiring an addiction to methadone, and continued Morphine use with out detoxification from either substance.
- The Duke of Dope
- Posts: 1664
- Joined: Thu Oct 20, 2005 9:11 pm
- Location: The Sky
I should also add that i've taken oxycodone and hydrocodone before and they never did anything noticeable either... i think maybe i just don't have good opioid receptors or something.
it's like my body is saying "No, fuck that opiate shit, Give Me WEED!"
- The Duke of Dope
- Posts: 1388
- Joined: Tue May 29, 2007 5:00 am
HOW CAN SO MANY YEARS COME TO PASS WITHOUT ANYONE TELLING ME I SPELLED WEIRD WRONG?
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